integral from 0 to infinity of (cos x * cos(x^2)) dx
The behaviour of this function f(x)=cos(x)cos(x^2) is interesting. The integral is the area between the curve and the x axis. If the functions cos(x) and -cos(x) are plotted on the same graph, the latter form an envelope for f(x). Between x=(pi)/2 and 3(pi)/2, the curve has 4 maxima and 3 minima; between x=3(pi)/2 and 5(pi)/2 there are 7 maxima and 6 minima; between x=(2n-1)(pi)/2 and (2n+1)(pi)/2 there are 3n+1 maxima and 3n minima (integer n>0), a total of 6n+1. (These are based purely on observation, and need to be supported by sound mathematical deduction.) As n becomes large the envelope appears to fill as the extrema become closer together. As x tends to infinity n also tends to infinity. The envelope apparently has as much area above (positive) as below (negative) the x axis so the total area will be zero as the positive and negative areas cancel out.
The question is: do the areas cancel out exactly? As x gets larger, the curve starts to develop irregularities and patterns, but it stays within the envelope, and positive irregularities appear to be balanced by negative irregularities, so the overall symmetry appears to be preserved.
f(x)=0 when cos(x)=0 or cos(x^2)=0, which means that x=(2n-1)(pi)/2 or sqrt((2n-1)(pi)/2), where n>0. Between 3(pi)/2 and 5(pi)/2, for example, we have sqrt(3(pi)/2), sqrt(5(pi)/2), ..., sqrt(13(pi)/2), because sqrt(13(pi)/2)<3(pi)/20, and this lies between (2n-1) and (2n+1); so n is defined by 2n-1<(2m+1)^2(pi)/2<2n+1.
For m-1 we have 2(n-z)-1<(2m-1)^2(pi)/2<2(n-z)+1, where z is related to the number of zeroes in the current "batch". For example, take m=3: 2n-1<49(pi)/2<2n+1; 49(pi)/2=76.97 approx., so 2n-1=75, and n=38. Also 2(n-z)-1<25(pi)/2<2(n-z)+1 so, because 25(pi)/2=39.27 approx., 2(n-z)+1=41, n-z=20, and z=18. When m=2, 2n-1=39, n=20; 2(20-z)-1<9(pi)/2<2(20-z)+1; 2(20-z)-1=13, 20-z=7, z=13. The actual number of zeroes, Z, including the end points is 2 more than this: Z=z+2. Now we have an exact way to calculate the number of zeroes in each batch. So Z and n are both related to m. The number of extrema, E=Z-1=z+1. In fact, E=int(2(pi)(m-1)+1), where int(a) means the integer part of a, so as m increases, there are proportionately more extrema over the range (2m-1)(pi)/2 to (2m+1)(pi)/2. The figure of 6n+1 deduced earlier by observation approximates to the mathematical findings, because 2(pi) is approximately equal to 6.
But we still need to show, or disprove, that the areas above and below the x axis are equal and therefore cancel out. Unfortunately, if we consider the area under the first maximum (between x=(pi)/2 and sqrt(3(pi)/2)), and the area above the first minimum (between x=sqrt(3(pi)/2) and sqrt(5(pi)/2)), they are not the same, so do not cancel out.
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